Hi! I’m trying to to implement subject control verbs in the Portuguese grammar I’m developing (in collaboration with @arademaker) using the Grammar Matrix customization system. It is a well-known fact that this system only supports the implementation of subject raising verbs, not of subject control verbs, as exemplified in (1) and (2), respectively (examples from Sag, Wasow, and Bender, 2003, p. 366 and p. 371):
(1) The FBI continued to visit Lee.
(2) Sandy tried to eat oysters.
The core matrix.tdl file, however, does provide a type which can be manually adapted into a subtype in order to handle subject control verbs:
trans-first-arg-control-lex-item := non-local-none-lex-item & basic-icons-lex-item & [ ARG-ST < [ LOCAL [ CAT cat-sat, CONT.HOOK [ INDEX ref-ind & #ind, ICONS-KEY.IARG1 #clause, CLAUSE-KEY #clause ] ] ], [ LOCAL.CONT.HOOK [ XARG #ind, LTOP #larg, ICONS-KEY.IARG1 #clause, CLAUSE-KEY #clause ] ] >, SYNSEM [ LOCAL.CONT [ HOOK.CLAUSE-KEY #clause, HCONS.LIST < qeq & [ HARG #harg, LARG #larg ] > ], LKEYS.KEYREL [ ARG1 #ind, ARG2 #harg ] ] ].
Based on the type
subj-raise-aux created by the customization system for subject raising verbs, I created the following type:
trans-first-arg-control-verb-lex := main-verb-lex & noninh-refl-verb-lex & trans-first-arg-control-lex-item & [ SYNSEM.LOCAL [ CAT.VAL [ SPEC < >, COMPS < #comp >, SUBJ < #subj > ], CONT.HOOK.XARG #xarg ], ARG-ST < #subj & [ LOCAL [ CAT [ HEAD noun & [ CASE nom ], VAL [ SUBJ < >, SPR < >, SPEC < >, COMPS < > ] ], CONT.HOOK.INDEX #xarg ] ], #comp & [ LOCAL.CAT [ VAL [ SUBJ < unexpressed >, COMPS < >, SPR < >, SPEC < > ], HEAD verb ] ] > ].
noninh-refl-verb-lex is inherited by verbs that undergo inflection in the morphology and forbid the attachment of an expletive reflexive clitic (used as an unaccusativity marker by the intransitive variants of some inchoative-causative verbs, e.g. abrir ‘open’). It was created by the customization system from the choices I had specified.
In order to handle subject control verbs subcategorizing for a bare infinitive complement, I also created the following type:
inf-trans-first-arg-control-verb-lex := trans-first-arg-control-verb-lex & [ ARG-ST.REST.FIRST.LOCAL.CAT.HEAD.FORM infinitive].
The thusly modified grammar was able to parse sentences such as
(3) o gato tenciona dormir
‘the cat intends to sleep’
However, as I anticipated, the MRS generated is not correct:
The subject control verb tencionar ‘to intend’ should have not two, but three arguments, i.e., the cat should also show up as an argument, as in the analogous English sentence parsed by the ERG.
Does anyone know how I could get the MRS right? How can I specify that the subject of the matrix verb is also one of its semantic arguments?